Doctors Ignatowski, Tobinick, and Spengler at the INR, January 2014.












This new book chapter has published in its pre-print version from the new scientific textbook entitled, “Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation” by InTech. Download the free pre-print version here: On Overcoming Barriers to Application of Neuroinflammation Research, Edward Tobinick, Tracey Ignatowski, Robert Spengler. InTech, 2017.

Tobinick E, Ignatowski, T., Spengler, R. On Overcoming Barriers to Application of Neuroinflammation Research. In: Abreu GEA, ed. Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation: InTechOpen; 2017.

“Perispinal Etanercept for Traumatic Brain Injury” is Chapter 7 of the medical textbook New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury. See the abstract and links below:

Brain dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may involve a persistent neuroinflammatory response that can last for years following acute brain insult. This neuroinflammatory response may include microglial activation and persistence of excess levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the brain, resulting in perturbation of brain function. TNF, in addition to its role as the master regulator of the inflammatory response, is a key regulator of synaptic function in the brain. Experimental data suggest that etanercept, a selective TNF inhibitor, may ameliorate microglial activation; modulate the adverse synaptic effects of excess TNF; and favorably intervene in basic science models of TBI, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and Alzheimer’s disease. Perispinal administration is a therapeutic method designed to use the cerebrospinal venous system to enhance selective delivery of etanercept across the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Increasing clinical data suggests that perispinal etanercept (PSE) has therapeutic utility for treatment of selected brain disorders associated with elevated TNF, including chronic neurological dysfunction following stroke and various forms of brain injury. PSE is an emerging treatment modality for TBI.”