A new breakthrough in the understanding of traumatic brain injury
Consultation for TBI at the INR
Patients who have experienced TBI often have weakness or decreased sensation in one or more extremities, cognitive or speech difficulties, or other neurological problems that can last for years. Treatment at the INR is not for patients with acute brain injury. Consultation with an INR medical provider at least one month after hospital discharge is encouraged, even if the brain injury has occurred years before. Please call the INR in Florida at +1 (561) 353-9707 for further information.
Inflammation mediated by the inflammatory cytokine TNF contributes to neurological dysfunction following TBI [1-4]. Basic science studies suggest that TBI may result in progressive neurologic injury during the first year [5-8]. Etanercept has demonstrated favorable results in published scientific studies of TBI in animal models [4,9]. Etanercept has also demonstrated favorable effects for other types of neurologic injury in both human studies and basic science models [9-21]. Prolonged neuroinflammation, including chronic microglial activation, has been demonstrated by brain imaging following traumatic brain injury [22-25]. Etanercept has been demonstrated to reduce microglial activation in multiple experimental models [4, 26, 27]. The peer-reviewed, published, scientific studies detailed on this webpage support the scientific rationale for the therapeutic potential of etanercept for traumatic brain injury [1-30].
What is Traumatic Brain Injury?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain. A person with a mild TBI may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. Other symptoms of mild TBI include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.
Chronic TBI should be distinguished from acute TBI. Adverse residual neurological and brain effects from TBI occurring years before can continue. These chronic adverse effects can include difficulties with attention, concentration, planning, calculation, reading, vision, hearing, balance and motor activities such as walking or use of hands or limbs.
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